Learn more about Henan Shunzhi Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd
Nickel is an indispensable metal element in the world and an essential raw material for military manufacturing, machinery manufacturing, atomic energy industry, ultrasonic industry and communications. The chemical symbol of nickel is Ni, with an atomic weight of 58.69. It is ferrophilic, and its content is second only to silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium.
There are many types of nickel ore, which are mainly divided into copper-nickel ore and copper-nickel oxide ore according to mineral properties. Among them, copper is the main impurity mineral in nickel ore, followed by lead, zinc, arsenic, fluorine, manganese, antimony and bismuth. , chrome, etc. In the beneficiation process, the beneficiation of sulfide copper-nickel ore and copper-nickel oxide ore are the main beneficiaries.
1. The beneficiation method of copper-nickel sulfide ore
Most of the sulfide copper-nickel ore types are magma-melted copper-nickel ore. When the nickel content is above 3%, it is a rich ore and can be directly smelted. When the nickel content is less than 3%, it needs beneficiation. When the nickel ore content is less than 3%, it is mainly accompanied by a large amount of metal minerals and gangue minerals.
Metal minerals: mainly pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, followed by magnetite, pyrite, ilmenite, chromite, chalcopyrite, copper blue, chalcocite, spot copper and platinum group minerals.
Gangue minerals: olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, talc, serpentine, chlorite, actinolite, and mica, etc., and some also contain quartz and carbonate.
The copper in the copper-nickel sulfide ore mainly exists in the form of chalcopyrite, and the nickel mainly exists in the form of free nickel sulfide such as pyrite, goethite, and pyrite. Complex occurs in pyrrhotite. Therefore, the commonly used beneficiation method for copper-nickel sulfide ore is flotation, and the method is as follows:
1. Direct (or partial) preferential flotation method:
Direct or partial preferential flotation is to separate copper ore into a separate concentrate, which is mostly used in the case of high copper content. The main feature of this method is that copper concentrate with low nickel content can be directly obtained.
2. Mixed flotation method:
The mixed flotation method mainly mixes flotation of copper and nickel from the ore, and then separates the low nickel-containing copper concentrate and the copper-nickel concentrate from the mixed concentrate. The obtained copper-containing nickel concentrate can be directly smelted into high nickel matte, and then the high nickel matte is separated by flotation. The method is mainly suitable for sorting the copper-nickel ores with low copper content.
3. Mixed priority flotation method:
The mixed flotation method is preferred. After copper and nickel mixed flotation, part of the nickel is recovered from the mixed flotation tailings. The mixed-optimized flotation method is mainly used under the condition that the floatability of various nickel minerals in the ore is relatively different.
2. Mineral beneficiation method of nickel oxide ore
1. Fire smelting:
Pyro smelting can be divided into electric furnace smelting, nickel-iron method and granulated iron method. Among them, the rotary kiln granulated iron method is relatively old, the process is complicated, and the granulated iron content is low, the recovery rate of nickel is low, and cobalt cannot be recovered. The nickel recovery rate of the electric furnace smelting method is relatively high, and part of it can be drilled into the ferronickel, which is recovered during the refining process, and is mostly used for the treatment of silicon-magnesium-nickel ore.
2. Wet smelting:
Wet refining can be divided into reduction roasting atmospheric pressure ammonia leaching method and high pressure acid leaching method. At present, both processes have been applied in industry. In addition, there are new methods such as high-temperature chlorination and sulfated roasting, which are still in the research stage.