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Most manganese ore is lean and must be processed. However, since manganese ores are mostly fine-grained or fine-grained, and contain a considerable amount of high phosphate ore, high iron ore and co (associated) beneficial metals, it brings great difficulties to the processing of the ore. At present, the commonly used manganese beneficiation methods include mechanical beneficiation (including washing, screening, gravity separation, strong magnetic separation and flotation), as well as high-temperature beneficiation and chemical beneficiation methods.
1. Ore washing and screening
Scrubbing is the separation of the ore from the slurry using hydraulic scrubbing or additional mechanical scrubbing. Commonly used equipment are washing screen, drum washing machine and washing machine. The washing operation is often accompanied by screening, such as washing directly on the vibrating screen or sending the ore (clean ore) obtained by the washing machine to the vibrating screen for screening. Screening can be used as a stand-alone operation to separate products of different particle sizes and grades for different purposes.
At present, gravity separation is only used to separate manganese ore with simple structure and coarse particle size, especially for manganese oxide ore with high density. Commonly used methods are heavy medium beneficiation, jig beneficiation and vibration beneficiation. At present, the process of processing manganese oxide ore in my country is generally to crush the ore to 6-0mm or 10-0mm, then group the ore, jig it into coarse grade, and send it to the vibrating screen for fine grade. The equipment is mostly Haz type reciprocating fixture and 6-S type shaker.
3. Strong magnetic separation
Manganese minerals are weak magnetic minerals [specific magnetic susceptibility X=10×10-6～600×10-6cm3/g], which can be used for magnetic field strength Ho=800～1600kA/m ( 1,000～2,000oe) Recycling can generally make manganese grade Increase by 4% to 10%.
Because of its simple operation, easy control and strong adaptability, magnetic separation can be used for the beneficiation of various manganese ores. Various new types of coarse, medium and fine-grained strong magnetic machines have been successfully developed. At present, the most widely used manganese ore in China is the medium-grain magnetic separator. Coarse and fine-grained strong magnetic separators are gradually being used. The strong magnetic separator for fine particles is still in the experimental stage.
4. Gravity magnetic separation
At present, the newly built or reconstructed gravity and magnetic separation plants in China include Fujian Liancheng, Guangxi Lide, Jingxi, Xialei and other manganese mines. For example, Liancheng Manganese Mine Gravity-Magnetic Separation Plant mainly deals with leaching manganese oxide ore. The AM-30 jig is used to process 30~3mm washed ore, and obtain high-quality manganese concentrate containing more than 40% manganese. After screening to remove impurities, it can be used as the raw material of battery manganese powder. After grinding the jig tailings and concentrates with a diameter of less than 3mm to less than 1m, the grade of manganese concentrates should be increased by 24% to 25% to 36% to 40%.
5. Strong maglev
At present, the strong magnetic flotation process only uses Zunyi manganese ore. The ore is low manganese, low phosphorus and high iron manganese ore based on manganese carbonate ore. After industrial tests, the grinding process adopts rod mill-ball mill grade mill, and the equipment scale is φ2100mm×3000mm wet mill. The strong magnetic separation adopts shp-2000 strong magnetic machine, and the flotation machine mainly adopts CHF inflatable flotation machine. After years of production tests, it has excellent performance and is very suitable for manganese selection in Zunyi. The successful test of the strong magnetic flotation process and its application in production marks a big step forward for the deep beneficiation of manganese ore in my country.
6. Fire enrichment
Thermal separation of manganese ore is a separation method for processing high phosphorus, high iron, and refractory lean manganese ore, which is generally called rich manganese slag method. Its essence is to use the different reduction temperatures of manganese, phosphorus and iron to control the temperature in the blast furnace or electric furnace, and selectively separate the high temperature separation method of manganese, phosphorus and iron. my country has adopted the high-temperature concentration method for nearly 40 years. In 1959, Shaoyang Zijiang Iron Works in Hunan conducted a test on a small blast furnace with a capacity of 9.4 cubic meters and obtained preliminary results. Subsequently, in 1962, Shanghai Ferroalloy Plant and Shijingshan Iron and Steel Plant smelted manganese-rich slag in blast furnaces. In 1975, manganese-rich manganese slag was not only smelted from manganese-rich slag from Manaoshan Manganese Mine in Hunan Province, but also lead, silver and pig iron (commonly known as semi-steel) were recovered at the bottom of the furnace, providing a basis for comprehensive utilization. Since the 1980s, the production of manganese-rich slag has developed rapidly, and the production of manganese-rich slag has been developed in Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Jilin and other places. The high-temperature enrichment process is simple and the production is stable. It can effectively separate iron and phosphorus from ore to obtain manganese-rich slag rich in manganese, low in iron and low in phosphorus. This manganese-rich slag generally contains 35% to 45% of manganese. Mn/Fe 12～38, P/Mn<0.002, is a high-quality manganese alloy raw material, and it is also an artificial rich ore that is difficult for ordinary natural manganese ore to achieve the above three indicators at the same time. Therefore, pyro-enrichment is a promising beneficiation method for refractory ores with high phosphorus, high iron and low manganese in my country.